Somaclonal variation is the variation seen in plants that have been produced by plant tissue culture. This technology holds ample scope in crop improvement of. Somaclonal variation provides a valuable source of genetic variation for the improvement of crops through the selection of novel variants, which may show resistance to disease, improved quality, and higher yield. Somaclonal variation offers improvement in the yield of crop plants and significantly contributing in crop productivity. Pdf somaclonal variation as a tool for crop improvement. Somaclonal variation an overview sciencedirect topics. Somaclonal variation in submergence tolerant rice cultivars and. Genomic changes associated with somaclonal variation in. In this article, we will discuss about the application of somaclonal variation in some crop plants and horticulturally plants. Sep 25, 20 help in crop improvement creation of additional genetic varitions increased and improved production of secondary metabolites selection of plants resistant to various toxins, herbicides, high salt concentration and mineral toxicity suitable for breeding of tree species advantages of somaclonal variations 15. Combination of somaclonal variation and mutagenesis for crop improvement.
In the field of biotechnology for crop improvement, cell culture is a key. Wed like to understand how you use our websites in order to improve them. Somaclonal variation on in vitro callus culture potato cultivars. Somaclonal variation is a tool that can be used by plant breeders. In addition to the variantsmutants cell lines and plants obtained as a result of the application of a selective agentin the presence or absence of a mutagen, many variants have been obtained through the tissueculture cycle itself.
The occurrence of subtle somaclonal variation is a drawback for both in vitro cloning as. Thus, somaclonal variation has proved an alternative tool to plant breeding for generating new varieties that can exhibit disease resistance and improvement in quality and yield in plants such as cereals, legumes, oil seeds, tuber crops, fruit crops, etc. Utilization of plant cell and tissue culture has provided one of the most important selection techniques for the development of hrcs chaleff, 1988. Somaclonal variation and induced mutations in crop improvement. Somaclonal variation can be defined as variation among plants regenerated from in vitro culture larkin and scowcroft, 1988 and is a common phenomenon in plant tissue culture skirvin et al. Saieed introduction substantial genetic and phenotypic variation occurs within plant cell, protoplast, anther, or tissue cultures. Somaclonal variation in crop improvement i professor dr. In vitro micropropagation is an important tool for crop improvement in plant breeding and is a common application for induction of somaclonal variation.
Plant tissue culture leading to somaclonal variation has been considered as a rapid and reliable approach for improvement of plants as the generated variation can be used either directly or in directly in a breeding program aimed at crop improvement. Somaclonal variation is the introduction of genetic variation in in vitro cultured cells and. May 05, 20 advantages of somaclonal variations help in crop improvement creation of additional genetic varitions increased and improved production ofsecondary metabolites selection of plants resistant to varioustoxins, herbicides, high salt concentrationand mineral toxicity suitable for breeding of tree species 15. Download somaclonal variation in crop improvement i. The technology of introducing genetic variation by using cell culture has been termed somaclonal and gametoclonal variation. Somaclonal variation is the variation seen in plants that have been produced by. Selection of mineral toxicities tolerant in sorghum plant mainly for aluminium toxicity detection and isolation of somaclonal variants advantages of somaclonal variations help in crop improvement creation of additional genetic varitions increased and improved production of secondary metabolites selection of plants resistant to various toxins. Somaclonal variation, structural variation, genetic engineering, biotechnology, transgenic crops. To analyze the somaclonal variation of regenerated rice plants, three lines. Somaclonal variations and their applications in horticultural crops improvement. The chloroplast variants described so far include an increased leaf size, darkened leaf color or reduced fruit set.
Therefore, somaclonal plants have several defined edge over conventional plants in acquiring useful traits. The occurrence of somaclonal variation is associated with point mutations. Various references have introduced somaclonal variation as a novel and useful source in. These soma clonal variants, which are dependent on the natural variation in a population of cells, may be genetic orepigenetic, and are. Somaclonal variation in cultured plant cells has been exploited to select herbicide resistance traits for crop improvement. Pdf somaclonal variations and their applications in. Somaclonal variation includes aneuploids, sterile plants and morphological variants, sometimes involving traits of economic importance in case of crop plants. In tissue culture, somaclonal variation has been presented a lot of significant contributions to plant science. The usefulness of variation was first demonstrated through the recovery of disease resistant plants in potato resistance against late blight and early blight and sugarcane resistance against eyespot disease, fiji disease and downy. Somaclonal variation among regenerated plants from callus and protoplast culture has been suggested as a useful source of potentially. Somaclonal variation can range in scope from specific trait to the whole plant genome. Somaclonal variation provides a valuable source of genetic variation for the improvement of crops through the selection of novel variants, which may show resistance to disease, improved quality, or higher yield 10, 11,12. However, somaclonal variation is undesirable in plant improvement or.
Genetic variations in plants that have been produced by plant tissue culture and can be detected as genetic or phenotypic traits. Somaclonal variation is a phenotypic variation, either genetic. Many causes have been identified or proposed for each type of variation. Somaclonal variation a novel source of variability from cell cultures for plant improvement. Introduction somaclonal variation is the genetic variation that is observed when plants are regenerated from cultured somatic cells. In our study, it was demonstrated that somaclonal variation was a useful source of variation for the selection of both disease resistance and improved horticultural traits, including earliness, dwarfism and yield potential etc. Combination of somaclonal variation and mutagenesis for crop. Somaclonal variation in crop improvement i biotechnology in agriculture and forestry 11 softcover reprint of hardcover 1st ed. Somaclonal variation it is the term used to describe the variation seen in plants that have been produced by plant tissue culture.
Somaclonal variation can produce mutations in genes of chloroplasts and mitochondria, organelles in the cell cytoplasm. Somaclonal variation and crop improvement larkin and scowcroft 1981 proposed the term somaclone to describe the plants originating from any type of tissue culture. Feb, 2016 somaclonal variation and induced mutations in crop improvement. Muller in 1927 was a major mi1estone in enhancing variation, and also indicated the potential applica tions of mutagenesis in plant improvement. Development and evaluation of in vitro somaclonal variation. Somaclonal variation as a tool for crop improvement. Radiation sources, such as xrays, gamma rays and fast neutrons, and chemical mutagens e. The recovery of somaclones can be increased by combining. During the micropropagation of valuable elite clones, this variation usually results in offtypes that reduce the commercial value of resultant plants. Study of somaclonal variation in two rice cultivars. Somaclonal variation is also called tissue or cultureinduced variation. Tissue culture increases the efficiency of mutagenic treatment to induce variations.
The literature to date indicates that somaclonal variation can range in scope from specific trait to the whole plant genome. Somaclonal variations and their applications in horticultural. In order to make use of somaclonal variation for crop improvement, several requirements are needed. The term somaclonal variation is a phenomenon of broad taxonomic occurrence, reported for species of different ploidy levels, and for outcrossing and inbreeding, vegetatively.
Genetic variation found to occur between somaclones in plant tissue cultures was called somaclonal variation. Due to limited genetic system andor narrow genetic base, somaclonal variation is more rewarding in sugarcane. Somaclonal variation a novel source of variability from. Somaclonal variation in micro propagated bananas medcraveonline. Characteristics of an isomenthonerich somaclonal mutant isolated in a geraniolrich rosescented geranium accession of pelargonium graveolens. On the other hand, somaclonal variation has provided a new and alternative tool to the breeders for obtaining genetic variability relatively rapidly and without sophisticated technology in. Molecular spectrum of somaclonal variation in regenerated rice. Somaclonal variation is not restricted to, but is particularly common in plants regenerated from callus. Such mutations have not been employed by traditional plant breeders.
Chromosomal rearrangements are an important source of this variation. Somaclonal variation free download as powerpoint presentation. In addition, somaclones improved productivity in plantation crops where generation cycle is long. Tissue culturederived variation in crop improvement request pdf. S gosal 2006principles and procedures of plant breeding,narosa publishing house 435441. A somaclonal variation can occur due to phenomena such as point mutations. Variations for karyotype, isozyme characteristics and morphology in somaclones may also observed. Somaclonal variation in vitro culture techniques plant.
Mutationbased plant improvement, which changes one or a few specific traits of a cultivar, can contribute to crop improvement. Because the goal of synthetic seed production is to obtain clonal identity, controlling the somaclonal variation is a challenge amirato, 1991. The main factors that influence the variation generated from tissue culture are 1 the degree of departure from organised growth, 2 the genotype, 3 growth regulators and 4 tissue source. Ppt somaclonal variations powerpoint presentation free to.727 609 1208 648 1422 120 1231 1400 1310 1364 1049 333 573 1192 40 600 1512 814 112 995 643 1510 645 830 62 1491 648 241 1384 589 914 235 205 1456 315 666 1063